August 14, 2010
PAPER: Tobacco smoking in seven Latin American cities: the CARMELA study, B M Champagne, E M Sebrié (firstname.lastname@example.org), H Schargrodsky, P Pramparo, C Boissonnet, E Wilson, Tobacco Control doi:10.1136/tc.2009.031666, ABSTRACT..
from Abstract: This study aimed to explore tobacco smoking in seven major cities of Latin America. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study is a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 11 550 adults between 25 and 64 years old in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Tobacco smoking, including cigarettes, cigars and pipes, was surveyed among other cardiovascular risk factors.
Santiago and Buenos Aires had the highest smoking prevalence (45.4% and 38.6%, respectively); male and female rates were similar. In other cities, men smoked more than women, most markedly in Quito (49.4% of men vs 10.5% of women). Peak male smoking prevalence occurred among the youngest two age groups (25–34 and 35–44 years old). Men and women of Buenos Aires smoked the highest number of cigarettes per day on average (15.7 and 12.4, respectively). Men initiated regular smoking earlier than women in each city (ranges 13.7–20.0 years vs 14.2–21.1 years, respectively). Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at workplace for more than 5 h per day was higher in Barquisimeto (28.7%), Buenos Aires (26.8%) and Santiago (21.5%). The highest prevalence of former smokers was found among men in Buenos Aires, Santiago and Lima (30.0%, 26.8% and 26.0% respectively).
Smoking prevalence was high in the seven CARMELA cities, although patterns of smoking varied among cities. A major health and economic burden is inevitable in urban Latin America unless effective comprehensive tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are implemented.
Related PAPER: CARMELA: assessment of cardiovascular risk in seven Latin American cities, Schargrodsky H, Hernández-Hernández R, Champagne BM, Silva H, Vinueza R, Silva Ayçaguer LC, Touboul PJ, Boissonnet CP, Escobedo J, Pellegrini F, Macchia A, Wilson E; CARMELA Study Investigators, Am J Med. 2008 Jan;121(1):58-65, ABSTRACT..